Asa Bibliography Page

Manuscript Formatting

Summary:

This resource covers American Sociological Association (ASA) style and includes information about manuscript formatting, in-text citations, formatting the references page, and accepted manuscript writing style. The bibliographical format described here is taken from the American Sociological Association (ASA) Style Guide, 5th edition.

Contributors:Joshua M. Paiz, Deborah L. Coe, Dana Lynn Driscoll
Last Edited: 2017-08-01 03:19:09

Title Page

Include a separate title page with the full title of the manuscript, authors' names and institutions (listed vertically if there are more than one), and a complete word count of the document (which includes footnotes and references).

A title footnote should include the address of the corresponding author (that is – the author who receives correspondence regarding the article), grants/funding, and additional credits and acknowledgements (for papers for sociology classes, this is often not needed).

Abstract

If an abstract is needed, it should be on a separate page, immediately after the title page, with the title of the document as the heading.

Do not include author.

The abstract should be one paragraph, 150-200 words in length.

 

Key Words

On the same page as the abstract, include a list of three to five words that help to identify main themes in the manuscript.

Text Formatting

All text within the document should be in a 12-point font and double spaced (including footnotes), or as specified by journal or course instructor.

Margins

Margins should be at least 1 1/4 inches on all sides, or as specified by journal or course instructor.

First Page

The first page of the text should start with the title and be on a new page of text (after the title page and abstract).

Subheadings

Use subheadings to organize the body of the manuscript. Usually, three different levels of headings should be sufficient.

THIS IS A FIRST-LEVEL HEAD

  • Place first-level heads in all caps and left-justify.
  • Don't use a bold font.
  • Don't begin the manuscript with a heading, such as Introduction.


This is a Second-Level Head

  • Italicize and left-justify second-level heads.
  • Don't use a bold font.
  • Use title case.

This is a third-level head

  • Italicize and left-justify third-level heads.
  • Don't use a bold font.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the head.


Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and endnotes are used to cite materials of limited availability, expand upon the text, or to add information presented in a table.

Endnotes are used more frequently than footnotes, but both should be used sparingly. As a general rule, use one or the other throughout the manuscript but do not mix them. (The exception to this rule is to use a footnote on the Title page and for tables, but use endnotes throughout the rest of the document for manuscripts being submitted to a sociology journal.)

In the text, footnotes or endnotes, whichever are used, should be numbered consecutively throughout the essay with superscript Arabic numerals.

Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page on which the material being referenced appears. If using endnotes, at the end of the paper in a separate section following the references, type the endnotes in numerical order, double-spaced, as a separate section with the title Notes or Endnotes.

Begin each note with the same superscripted number used in the text.

    8 See the new ASA Style Guide for more information.

Page Numbering

Pages should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, 3...) starting with the title page and including the references page(s), or as specified by journal or course instructor.

Tables and Figures

Number tables consecutively (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3).

Number figures consecutively (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3).

Each table or figure should be placed on a separate page at the end of the manuscript, and should have a descriptive title that explains enough that the reader can understand it without having to refer to the text of the article.

In tables, give full headings for every column and row, avoiding the use of abbreviations whenever possible. Spell out the word percent in headings.

For more information, please consult the ASA Style Guide, Fifth Edition.

Overview

The American Sociological Association Style Guide is intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. This handout is intended for students who are instructed to use ASA style when writing research papers. Consult the ASA Style Guide for additional or more detailed information (ref desk HM 73 A54 1997).

Manuscript Format

  • All text (including footnotes & references) must be double spaced and in 12 point type.
  • Margins must be at least 1 inches on all four sides
  • A separate title page including title of paper, name(s) of authors, word count for the manuscript (including footnotes and references), title footnote (includes names, addresses of authors, acknowledgments, credits, and grants)
  • If required, on a separate page provide a short (150-200 word) abstract headed with the title.
  • Begin the text of the paper on a separate page headed with the title of the paper.

Citations in Text

  • Basic form for citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page number when you quote directly from the work or refer to specific passages.
  • If author's name is in the text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses:
    When Chu (1977) studied...
  • If the author's name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses:
    ...when the study was completed (Jones 1994).
  • If the page number is to be included, it follows the year of publication after a colon:
    Chavez (1966:16)...
  • For three authors, give all last names in the first citation in the text; afterwards use the first name and et al.; for more than three names, use the first author's last name plus et al.:
    (Smith, Garcia and Lee 1954); (Snow et al. 1989)
  • Quotations in the text must begin and end with quotation marks; the citation follows the end quote mark and precedes the period:
    "In 1999, however, the data were reported by more specific job types which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better" (Hildenbrand 1999:47).

Footnote & Endnotes

  • Try to avoid footnotes, but if necessary, use footnotes to cite material of limited availability or to add information presented in a table.
  • Footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the essay with superscript Arabic numerals and included at the bottom of the paper or in a separate section headed "Endnotes."

Reference List (Bibliography)

  • References follow the text and footnotes in a separate section headed "References."
  • All references cited in the text must be listed and vice-versa.
  • Remember references should be double-spaced.
  • List references in alphabetical order by author's last names.
  • Use hanging indention (see examples)
  • Invert the authors' name; if there are two or more authors, invert only the first author's name.
  • Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of publication, earliest year first.
  • Use six hyphens and a period(------.) in place of the name(s) for repeated authorship.
  • Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding letters (e.g. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c).
  • Use italics for book and periodical titles (underline if italics are not available).
  • If no date is available use "N.d." in place of the date.
  • Include both city and state for place of publication except for New York using U.S. Postal Code abbreviations. For foreign cities provide the name of the country.

Examples of References

Note: Examples are single-spaced to conserve space but should be double-spaced in your paper.

Books

Basic form for a book entry is:

  1. Author's last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial, ending with a period.
  2. Year of publication followed by a period.
  3. Title of book italicized ending with a period.
  4. Place of publication, followed by a colon and name of publisher ending with a period.

One Author

De Anda, Roberto M. 1995. Chicanas and Chicanos in Contemporary Society. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Two Authors

Herrera-Sobek, Mari'a and Helena Mari'a Viramontes. 1995. Chicana (W)rites : On Word and Film. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press.

Chapter in Book

Nathan, Peter E. and Raymond S. Niaura. 1987. "Prevention of Alcohol Problems." Pp. 333-354 in Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol Problems: A Resource Manual, edited by W.M. Cox. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc.

No Author

Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

List books with no author alphabetically by the first significant word in the title.

Journal Articles in Print

Basic form for a journal article is:

  1. Author's last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial ending with a period.
  2. Year of publication followed by a period.
  3. Title of article in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark.
  4. Name of journal in italics
  5. Volume number followed by colon, page number(s) and period. Use the issue number following the volume number in parenthesis or exact date for journal article prior to the volume number for journals that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.

One Author (Journal Articles)

Garcia, Alma M. 1998. "An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano Studies Moving into the Twenty-first Century." Journal of American Ethnic History 18:109.

Two or More Authors (Journal Articles)

Exum, William H., Robert J. Menges, Bari Watkins, and Patricia Berglund. 1984. "Making it at the top: Women and minority faculty in the academic labor market." American Behavioral Scientist 27:301-324.

Newspaper & Magazine Articles in Print

Basic form for a newspaper or magazine entry is:

  1. Author's last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial, ending with a period.
  2. Year of publication followed by a period.
  3. Title of article in quotations and ending with a period inside the closing quotation mark.
  4. Name of newspaper/magazine in italics
  5. Date of publication followed by a comma
  6. Page number of article within the publication ending with a period.

Magazine

Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing culture clashes - As the IT workforce grows more diverse, managers must improve awareness without creating inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.

Newspaper

Rimland, Bernard. 2000. "Do children's shots invite autism?" Los Angeles Times, April 26, A13.

Articles Retrieved in Electronic Format

From Commercial Databases

Graham, Lorie M. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine." American Indian Law Review, 23:1. Retrieved May 25, 1999 Available: LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Law Reviews.

Web Version of Newspapers

Clary, Mike. 2000. "Vieques Protesters Removed Without Incident." Los Angeles Times, May 5. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/updates/lat_vieques000505.htm).

Web based journals

Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to Understanding Japanese Culture?." Electronic Journal of Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.sociology.org/content/vol005.001/smith-nomi.html).

Information posted on a web page

American Sociological Association. 2000. "Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Workshop." Washington, DC: American Sociological Association, Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.asanet.org/members/socwkshp.html)

Other

Government Documents

Since the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documents cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that the reader can locate the reference easily. For example see the following:

United States. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. 1999. Rehab a home with HUD's 203(k) : HUD and FHA are on your side. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.

One thought on “Asa Bibliography Page

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *